My Military His Military Essay, Research Paper
About 60 Old ages of Change in the Military ( 1941 to 2000 )
I have been in the armed forces for 17 old ages and during my term of office yhere have been infinite alterations. When I meet a new troop with a fresh attitude I can t aid but believe of how it was when I foremost entered the service. More so one time I have made the error of showing my ideas on the alteration of the military attitude to ex-military. They have all been more than willing to state me about the existent alterations in the armed forces. It made me inquire. If the armed forces had changed so much during my clip, so how much had it changed from my male parent s clip or even his male parent s clip. Unfortunately, my gramps is non around to inquiry. So I m left with my research and memories. My Grandfather Keith Sabin, entered the Army in 1941, my male parent, Earl Dickerson, entered the Navy in 1960, and I entered the Air Force in 1983.
There have been legion alterations over the old ages. Some have been blatantly obvious, while other have been subtler. All have had a profound impact on both the U.S service member every bit good as the United States. I m traveling to cover several cardinal countries that range from engineering to the human factor of the armed forces.
When my gramps entered the Army in 1941 the Air Force had non yet been established. It was still known as the Army Air Corp and would non go its ain subdivision until September 1947. It had merely been 30 old ages since Orville and Wilbur Wright sold their first aircraft to the ground forces as an observation tool. Martin Luther King, Jr. was merely 11 old ages old. Television was still in its babyhood and was a long clip off from being a family point.
The above information is the basic background of my comparing, non simply how the armed forces has changed but how the alterations have impacted the civilian sector. The first issue that will be addressed will be segregation. Unfortunately, during this epoch, the armed forces can non keep its caput really high on this peculiar issue. Harmonizing to Michael Lee Lanning, writer of The Afro-american Soldiers, even though public jurisprudence had cleared the manner for black work forces to be military pilots, the Army Air Corp was really persevering in its attempt to halt inkinesss from winging. In his book he quotes this alibi given by the Air Corps on May 25, 1941:
We are holding trouble in happening 20 qualified pupils needed to get down direction, and now that the War Department is funding and financing this plan, and it is the policy non to blend coloured and white work forces in the same tactical organisation, and since no proviso has been made for any coloured Air Corps units in the Army, colored individuals are non eligible for hitch in the Air Corps, so there is no demand for extra installations. ( 190 )
Even after Torahs where established coercing the armed forces to accept anyone regardless of race, the armed forces still practiced blazing favoritism. A memo written by the senior superior member of the Air Corp, General Henry H. Arnold stated, Negroes will merely be used in places such as servers in the muss halls. He went on to state, Negro pilots can non be used in our present Air Corps units since this would ensue in a Negro officer functioning over a white adult male. This would make an impossible societal job.
It would be several more old ages before the federal authorities took the military by the pharynx and said you will handle everyone equal. This came in the signifier of Executive Order 9981, initiated by president Harry S. Truman, and was enacted September 1947. This executive order merely read, It is herewith declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of intervention and chance for all individuals in the Armed Service, without respect to race, colour, faith, or national beginning. Of all the executive orders issued towards the military, none are every bit good known or as to a great extent emphasized as this 1. It non merely changed the manner the military treated inkinesss, but gave credibleness to the black adult male s ability to make everything the white adult male could. It showed the civilian sector that the black adult male was every bit good as anyone, whether they chose to believe it or non.
By the clip my Father had enlisted in the military, racial equality was the military s accepted norm. This does non intend all things were equal, it merely means that this was the policy the military had adopted. Harmonizing to my male parent, the armed forces was really steadfast in its public enforcement of racial equality. He besides said this of his first twenty-four hours of boot cantonment, within 15 proceedingss of acquiring off of that coach, I knew that even a blind adult male would hold know who the black recruit was. He clarified this by stating, There were about 30 people on my coach, but to the Drill Instructor there were merely two. They where both black and both in deep S*** . He went on to state that overall the racial jobs where isolated. Peoples knew who the bigots were and stayed clear of them whenever possible. He said it was dry that the solution to the jobs brought on by integrating were solved by isolationism. Everyone stayed with their ain chinks and for the most portion this worked good.
The war in Vietnam was another turn outing evidences for the inkinesss. There is much argument as to why the black hitch rate soared at this clip, but for the first clip in history inkinesss were proportionately represented in the armed forces. That is to state, the per centum of inkinesss in the armed forces was equal to the per centum in the civilian sector.
As the Vietnam War escalated, the credence of the black soldier as an American soldier grew by springs and bounds. Mark Kulik wrote an article entitled Great Society-In Uniform which appeared in Newsweek magazine, on August 22, 1966. The article highlighted the outstanding public presentation of inkinesss in Vietnam. It went on to praise the success of the military integrating policy. Hanson Baldwin, military editor for the New York Times, wrote this about black in the armed forces, the Negro has ne’er had it so good in the Army. If a statement like this were to look in a paper today all snake pit would interrupt loose. But if we look at it through a brace of 1960 s adaptative spectacless, it shows the armed forces was doing great paces in its pursuit for equality. An article written by Scottie B. Moore, appeared in the May 26, 1967 issue of Time. He sums up the advancement made by both the armed forces and the Black soldier. He concluded:
For the first clip in the state s military history, its the Negro contending work forces to the full integrated in combat, productively employed in a place of leading, and ferociously proud of their public presentation. More than anything else, the public presentation of the Negro G.I. under fire reaffirms the success-and diversity- of the American experiment.
Upon my entry to the United States Air Force, I was introduced to executive order 9981. When I started this part of my research, I got existent brave and asked two of my newest military personnel ( both black ) how they felt about the topic. I got two really different points of position. The first stated that he felt profiled. He felt like he was more badly punished than his white opposite numbers even though the misdemeanors were the same. He besides felt that it wasn T because of policy, but because of attitude and stereotyping. The 2nd single I talked to said that on juncture he felt a small out of topographic point. He felt this was more due to people worrying about stating or making the incorrect thing. He went on to state that the armed forces is so focussed on political rightness, that they sometimes missed the point. I asked what he intend by that and after a small idea he said,
My friends treat each other like dirt, they dog each other, bad oral cavity each other, cut each other to the bone. You know like friends do. When we are entirely they do the same to me, I m merely one of the male childs. But when we get to work everything is dainty and proper. Now I m merely a troop. They are afraid to be themselves.
Many people, both military and civilian, portion this perceptual experience. It is one that we have all have had to cover with.
A 2nd alteration for the armed forces is its progresss in engineering. The U.S. military has ever been the leader in
technological interruption troughs. When my gramps foremost entered the armed forces he was trained to read signal flags. This was a agency of communicating that dated back to medieval warfare. Although it was a last resort, it was something everyone was trained to make. Radio where non ever a dependable agencies of communicating, and transmittals could be easy intercepted. One of the military s foremost and more interesting agencies of wireless security was the usage of Native American Indians. There were eternal sum of people who spoke several different common linguistic communications. It took really small attempt to interpret a linguistic communication, and coded transmittals were really cumbrous for the intended receiving system to interpret. The other job with coded messages was the more it was used, the more likely it was to be compromised. What was fantastic about the Native Americans was their hereditary linguistic communication. The lone topographic point it could be learned was at place. It wasn t taught in any college or university. With over 20 major idioms, it was impossible to develop person to understand the linguistic communication. Even if person was captured, it was extremely improbable he would be able understand a specific idiom. Besides, how would the enemy know if he understood it or non?
My gramps was assigned to an armoured division. While I was in Saudi Arabia during Desert Storm/Desert Shield he wrote me about his experiences with armored combat vehicles and sand. He hated how a armored combat vehicle stood out in the desert and how it sunk so low in the sand. He said he ever felt like a duck in the desert. He was out of topographic point and a long ways from place. He told me how the flight hatch was located in the underside of the armored combat vehicle but it couldn t be used because the armored combat vehicle sat excessively low in the sand. He told me that it got so hot in the armored combat vehicle that they threw the thermometer out because they didn t want to cognize how hot it truly was indoors. He said that this was likely the make up one’s minding factor when he chose non to reenlist in the ground forces.
By the clip my pa had entered the military, radio encoding was a well-developed scientific discipline. Satellite communicating was a blooming scientific discipline. Ships in the Atlantic Ocean could pass on with ships in the Pacific. Radar could track an enemy 100s of stat mis off alternatively of merely 10 to 20. Radar was even developing to the point were it could place different types of aircraft. Smart bombs were being tested in Vietnam. These bombs could be guided into a mark with extraordinary truth. This was in contrast to the yesteryear, where the bombers relied on measure instead than truth. During World War II 100s of planes would be sent to drop 1000s of bombs, in hopes of hitting a individual mark. With the smart bomb, two are three planes could make the occupation of 50 bombers.
By today s criterions that was nil. Today we have the luxury of directing a ship to sit two 100 stat mis off the seashore of a state and with a individual missile, hit a little mark five 100 stat mis inland. Our armored combat vehicles can go at 60 stat mis per hr, hit a mark that they can non even see, and all this without of all time decelerating down. Communication is so good now, that non merely can a soldier, with a hi-tech wireless, talk to anyone of his companions, anyplace in the universe. Besides, if he so chooses he can draw his cell phone out of his pocket and call place, that is if he doesn t head paying the roaming fees.
I ne’er talked to my gramps about life conditions while he was in the ground forces. This is something I genuinely regret. One of the biggest morale issues for today s immature soldier is populating conditions. When I asked my pa about this, he replied that the conditions were non great but that was an recognized portion of military life. Larry H. Ingraham, writer of The Boys in the Barracks, had this to state about life conditions in the barracks, During World War II life in the barracks was like life in an Oliver Twist orphanhood. The military personnels slept 80 to a bay, stacked two deep and were near adequate to keep custodies if they so desired. ( 212 ) He went on to state that cipher complained because every bit long as they where assigned to a barracks they were at place. Over the following 20 old ages populating conditions did non alter a great trade. As my Dad described it, it was 80 beds deep, and privateness was non an option. The showers were unfastened stables and the lavatories unfastened walled.
By the clip I entered the military things had started to alter. My basic preparation life adjustments were reasonably much like my pa described it. However, by the clip I arrived at my proficient school things were looking up. I had one roomie and our bathroom joined another room shared by two more people. I could lavish, or utilize the lavatory in private. Life was good. I had a telecasting in my room, every bit good as a window-mounted air conditioner. This was the Air Force criterion for about the following 10 old ages. After the draw down, the Air Force found that it could give everyone their ain room. New residence halls would now be built with this construct in head. In the last 3 to 4 old ages, in order aid with keeping, the Air Force has gone one measure further. They are now constructing what they call 1+1 residence halls. This is fundamentally a little 2-bedroom flat that has a common kitchen and life room. The two residents have at that place ain private sleeping rooms.
One more cardinal facet of the military life is the wage. If the soldier is non in it for responsibility, award, or love of state he chose the incorrect profession. The wage graduated tables have changed astronomically since my gramps foremost entered the service, but it still is non traveling to do a soldier rich. The earliest wage charts available by the military day of the month back to 1949. A basic trainee would have $ 75.00 a month as his basic wage. If he were to get married and populate off station he could have and extra $ 45.00 to $ 85.00 depending on how may dependents he had. A senior enlisted member with the wage class of E-7 ( highest enlisted class ) would do $ 294.00 for his basic wage. In 1963 a basic trainee would gain $ 78.00 a month. In a 24-year period the basic trainees pay merely increased $ 3.00. However, the senior enlisted member who was an E-9 ( the armed forces added two wage classs ) earned $ 560.00. This was a about 100 % addition over the same 24 twelvemonth period. The armed forces has put a great trade more value on the American G.I. The basic wage for a new troop is $ 950.00 per month. This is a far call from that $ 78.00 that was being paid 27 old ages before. In fact it is about $ 400.00 more than the senior ranking enlisted adult male was doing in 1963. Now as for what that same E-9 is doing today, he will take place a small over $ 3100.00 a month in basic wage. He will have extra money for populating off base, a possible cost of populating allowance based on the cost of life in a peculiar country, and a nutrient allowance. On norm this E-9 s payroll check will be $ 3800.00 a month.
There are infinite other comparings that could be made about these three coevalss of the military. Many of these things are touchable, and easy compared to the past, but many are non. Attitudes have changed. Peoples are fall ining for educational benefits instead than responsibility and love of county. In the past, many immature work forces came in with the purpose of doing the armed forces a calling, because that s what their male parents did and grampss did. Today, really few articulation with a lifetime committedness in head. They join because of the first-class educational chances or for some other personal grounds. The new soldier is interested in the bottom dollar what s in it for me? The sense of pride that my gramps, my male parent and myself cherished seems to hold been lost in our new military.
Baldwin, Hanson. All American Soldiers. New York Times 20 Nov. 1966, A3.
Dickerson, Earl N. Written interview. 11 Apr. 2000.
Ingraham, Larry H. The Boy in the Barracks: Observations on American Military Life.
Philadelphia: ISHI, 1964.
Kulik, Mark L. Great Society-In Uniform. Newsweek 22 August. 1966: 31-33. Article
Lanning, Michael L. The Afro-american Soldier. Secaucus: Birch Lane Press, 1997.
Sabin, Keith. Personal remembrances over my life-time.
Moore, Scottie B. The American Experiment. Time 26 May 1967: 86-87.