Ozone Essay, Research Paper
Ozone is an of import molecule in keeping the homeostasis in the
environment. Ozone, the molecule O3, makes a bed in the stratosphere,
situated 10 to 15 kilometres from the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface. The dioxide
molecule, O2 and Oxygen atom O, collide with each other consequence in the
formation of Ozone, O3. In this reaction, the molecule O3 contains an extra
of energy. Once the molecule is formed, it is non stable plenty to last
long. The energy-rich O3 molecules discards the extra energy by clashing
with another atom or molecule and reassigning the energy in the signifier of
heat. In the consequences of the decomposition of ozone into O2 and O in the
ozone bed, solar radiation is absorbed. This procedure of the chemical bond
interrupting doing the soaking up of a photon by a molecule is called
photodissociation. Radiation with sufficient strength, is capable of
dividing the O3 molecule, ensuing in photodissociation. The cyclic
procedure formation and decomposition of ozone provides a shield against
UV radiation that enter the Earth & # 8217 ; s atmosphere. If it were non for
the chemical reaction of radiation and ozone in the stratosphere, these
high-energy photons would perforate the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface. The ozone bed
absorbers about 99 % of the harmful radiation which makes it possible for
animate beings and workss to populate on the planet.
In 1974, F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina of the University of
California proposed that Cl from CFCs ( Chlorofluorocarbons ) could
consume the ozone bed. Get downing in 1957 to 1985, the British Antarctic
Survey had measured the mean ozone concentration over Halley Bay in
Antarctica. Up until 1974, the ozone concentration remained stable. Yet
after 1974, the squad observed a diminution of the ozone bed to degrees less
than 10 % . From this survey the consciousness over the danger of the & # 8220 ; hole & # 8221 ; and
UV radiation and the devastation being done to the Earth.
Scientists believe the spread outing ozone hole, which is centered over
Antarctica was caused by Chloroflurocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbons are released into the
environment through such beginnings as spray tins, air conditioners,
mills, refrigerants and cleansing merchandises. Chlorofluorocarbons are unsafe to the
atmosphere because after they are released into the environment, the
sunshine interruptions down the compound. The Cl molecules react with the
ozone molecules by for good interrupting down the molecule, therefore decreasing
the ozone bed. This rise poses a major menace environment. In 1985, in
Vienna and in 1987 in Montreal, a Protocol was signed suggesting the gradual
expiration of usage of Chlorofluorocarbons over the decennaries. A dramatic decrease in the
usage of Chlorofluorocarbons was agreed on. Regulations to restrict the production of
fluorocarbon-11 and fluorocarbon-12 are being implemented in a figure of
states. Yet scientist are still concerned for what the hereafter holds.
Scientist have estimated that the mean rate of ozone depletion is 0.5 %
per twelvemonth. For this ground, scientists are forcing for happening some option to
repair the catastrophe.
Hydrofluorocarbons and HCFCs have been proposed as CFC
replacings. The atmospheric combinations expected to bring forth
trifluoroacetate ( TFA ) , which is removed chiefly by the rain. Yet there still
are jobs which scientist are seeking to screen out. The planetary norm TFA
concentration is really low, yet there is some concerns in state of affairss of high
vaporization, and the affects of TFA. TFA in high concentration could
suppress the works growing, a hazard that could turn black.
Another harmful ozone destroyer is Mythl bromide which is used by husbandmans
for plagues control, which is found in leaded gasolene, and Marine workss
discharge it into the air. Mythl bromide reacts the same manner as
chloroflurocarbons, with the bromide molecule destructing the ozone. Why
Mythl bromide is non every bit much of a job as Chlorofluorocarbons is because bromide does
non survive as long in the ambiance. By 1991, CFC & # 8217 ; s had been steadfastly
established Cl as the rule cause of the devastation of the ozone
molecule, but scientist are still diffident about the grade of danger that
myth bromide and other compounds pose to the ozone bed.
To find the depletion of the ozone bed, the National Aeronautic and
Space Administration ( NASA ) has been analyzing the stratosphere and to
step the concentration of ozone, aerosol atoms, N oxides,
hydrogenoxied, and CFCs. Scientist analyzing the effects of the depletion
of ozone agreed that there was a turning eroding in the ozone bed.
Scientist have besides agreed that the ozone bed has dropped to every bit much as
10 % . There is a chilling analogue in the rise in the sum of UV
beams and the hole in the ozone. This threatens all living things. Scientist
hold predicted a 5 to 20 per centum addition in ultraviolet radiation in the
following 40 old ages. Some scientists have besides predicted that for every 1 %
lessening in the ozone bed, there will be a 2 % addition in the in incidence
of skin malignant neoplastic disease. The addition of ultraviolet radiation ( UVR ) is one of the
chief hazard factors for skin malignant neoplastic disease. High exposure to ultraviolet radiation
can weaken the immune system.
In workss, the cells are damaged by the rise in ultraviolet radiation. With
the go oning rise in ultra-violet B radiation ( different frequence 280-320
nm ) workss have become the following victims. In workss, there are several
marks for UV-B beams. UV-B beams decelerate down the photosynthesis,
productiveness, and growing in workss. Such affects could intend 20 % to 25 %
lessening in harvest outputs. UV-B beams straight amendss the workss DNA in the
chloroplast. From soaking up of the high energy photons, the works becomes
damaged. For the increasing degrees of UV-B beams and UV-A beams, husbandmans
concern about the extremely possible decrease in outputs.
Scientists have done a batch to research a job that has been late
been discovered. In the apprehension of how the ozone bed plants, and it^ ? s
importance, happening a manner to halt the depletion of the ozone bed has
become necessary. The Ozone bed is indispensable for their to be life on
Earth. All living things can non populate in an environment of high radiation.
For this scientific discipline and worlds are looking for ways to repair the job.